Introduction: Given the growing interest in use of natural products of medicinal and food industries in the global healthcare debates, the Iranian people, officials, and industries’ increasing attention to benefits of medicinal herbs, and significance of integrating traditional medicine into modern healthcare system and supporting it (Iran enjoys 8000 herb species, 2500 species with medicinal properties and applications as spice, fragrance , and cosmetics and has a rich heritage of traditional medicine with over 14000 reference books and elegant works such as Avecina’s Canon of Medicine and Book of Healing, Al-Razi’s Al-Havi, and Zakhireh-i Kharazmshahi), the urgency of extensive fundamental measures for developing this area now is quite obvious. Recognizing the importance and status of medicinal plants science and technology and traditional medicine and in line with global trend, Islamic Republic of Iran has launched a range of systematic measures for better exploitation of this realm. In this regard, in 2008, “Committee for Development of Science and Technology of Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine” was established in Vice-Presidency for Science and Technology. This committee as the coordinating and integrating unit for all players in medicinal plants and traditional medicine of the country is designed to realize cross organizational collaboration and interaction of all stakeholders so that pre-defined targets would be fulfilled. “National Document of Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine” prepared based on 20-year-vision plan and the comprehensive scientific map of the country and through participation of more than 300 scholars, managers, and players of medicinal plants and traditional medicine has been presented to the steering committee of the comprehensive scientific map in the Supreme Council for Cultural Revolution that was accordingly ratified and proclaimed by this council in 2013.